April 28, 2017

Commentary on the Book of Genesis

By: Tom Lowe

 

PART IV: JOSEPH AND HIS BRETHREN (Gen. 37:1-50:26)

 

 

Topic # D: VISITS OF JOSEPH'S BROTHERS. Gen. 42:1-45:28                                                                                                                                                                                               

 

Lesson IV.D.9: Joseph Makes Himself Known.  (Gen. 45:1-15)                                      

 

Introduction to Chapter 45

While it is not the solution to every instance of anger, forgiveness is the answer to much, if not most, of the anger we experience in life. Unresolved anger leads to bitterness, hostility, and revenge. Forgiveness leads to freedom and reconciliation. No character in the drama of the book of Genesis better illustrates the fundamentals of forgiveness than Joseph, and no chapter more clearly defines and describes the essentials of forgiveness than chapter 45.

 

Those years which Joseph spent in slavery and prison could have been the occasion for a slow burn that might have ignited into an explosion of anger at the sight of his brothers. How angry Joseph could have been with God for getting him into such a situation. But Joseph recognized that God was with him in his sufferings and that these were from the loving hand of a sovereign God. Most of all, Joseph could have been angry with his brothers, who had callously sold him into slavery.

The high point of Joseph’s relationship with his brothers comes in chapter 45, for it is here that there is a reconciliation brought about between them. This was made possible on the brothers’ part by their genuine repentance, regretting their sin with regard to Joseph, and reversing their actions when a similar situation was presented with regard to Benjamin. But on Joseph’s part, reconciliation was achieved through his sincere and total forgiveness of his brothers for the evil they had committed against him.

Forgiveness is a vital part of the Christian experience. It is necessary in terms of our relationship with God:

“For if you forgive men for their transgressions, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you do not forgive men, then your Father will not forgive your transgressions” (Matthew 6:14-15).

 

 

Genesis 45:1-15 (KJV)

 

 1 Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.

2 And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard.

3 And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence.

4 And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt.

5 Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve life.

6 For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be earing nor harvest.

7 And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance.

8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.

9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not:

10 And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast:

11 And there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty.

12 And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you.

13 And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall haste and bring down my father hither.

14 And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.

15 Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them: and after that his brethren talked with him.

 

 

 

Commentary

 

 1 Then Joseph could not refrain himself before all them that stood by him; and he cried, Cause every man to go out from me. And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.

 

“Then Joseph could not refrain himself...”

Judah's speech had such an effect on Joseph’s emotion that he could not hold back his tears much longer. He must expose himself to his brothers or the tears would reveal his true identity.

 

“…before all them that stood by (before) him;…”  

“Them” does not include his brethren; but rather his servants that waited upon him, the steward of his house, and others. It was on their account that he tried so hard to keep his emotions in check, because he did not want them to discover his inner feelings and that his house guests were really his brothers; but seeing that he was unable to conceal them any longer, we read…

 

“…and he cried,…”

 Or called out with a loud voice, and an air of authority…

 

“…cause every man to go out from me.”

That is, out of the room in which he and his brethren were; perhaps this order was given to the steward of the house to depart himself, and to remove every inferior officer and servant, as well as those who came to watch the trial of those men, and to see how they would be dealt with.

 

“…And there stood no man with him, while Joseph made himself known unto his brethren.”

Joseph and his brethren were alone now, for everyone else had left the room at Joseph’s command. It is not that Joseph was ashamed of them, and of admitting to them that the eleven brothers were his next-of-kin; but that he did not want them to see the confusion his brethren would be thrown into, and have knowledge of the sin they had been guilty of in selling him into slavery, which he could not fail to mention, and they would surely confess; and besides, it was not suitable to his privileged circumstances and dignity for him to be seen expressing such an extreme display of affection that he was now going to express toward his brothers.

 

2 And he wept aloud: and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard.

 

It seems strange that Joseph could have wept so loud that his cries could be heard at some considerable distance, for we may suppose his dwelling was not very close to the palace! But this may be the genius of the Asian people; their sentiments of joy or grief are filled with emotion, and their emotions are ungoverned, excessive, and truly outrageous. When anyone returns from a long journey, or dies, his family burst into cries that may be heard twenty doors off; and this is renewed at different times, and continues many days, depending upon the potency of the passion. Sometimes they cease all at once, and then begin as suddenly with a greater shrillness and loudness than one could easily imagine. The house of Pharaoh may certainly signify Pharaoh's servants, or any of the members of his household, such as those whom Joseph had commanded to withdraw from his presence, and who might still be within hearing of his voice. After all, the words “the house of Pharaoh heard” may only mean that the report was brought to Pharaoh's house. (See Genesis 45:16.)

 

3 And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence.

 

“And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph;…”

Without question he had all along been addressed and spoken of by his Egyptian name, Zaphnath-paaneah, or by the titles of his office: so that, although in the narrative he is named Joseph, it is probable his brethren had never heard him called by that name by any person in Egypt. 

 

“…Doth my father yet live?”

This was a natural question for Joseph to ask, after he had informed them of who he was, and evidently it was suggested by his love for his father; he was anxious to learn of his welfare, and to gather all the information he could from his brethren. The scene envisioned here is one of great beauty; and it was an easy transition from Joseph the governor to Joseph the son and brother, which speaks well for his character. But can you even imagine what his brethren were now feeling? The Holy Spirit does not attempt to describe it, He only informs us.

 

 “And his brethren could not answer him; for they were troubled at his presence.”

They were troubled by a sudden and deep sense of their guilt, and their fear of some dreadful punishment. Therefore, to encourage them and alleviate their distress, he compassionately and warmly calls them to him; Come near to me, I pray you (45:4). Likewise, when Christ manifests himself to His people, He encourages them to draw near to him with a true heart. Perhaps he was about to speak about them selling him, so he would not speak aloud, for fear that the Egyptians would overhear him, and that would make the Hebrews even more of an abomination to them; therefore he would have asked them to come closer, so that he might whisper to them, which he could now do since the tide of his passion had ebbed, whereas, at first, he could only cry out.

 

4 And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt.

 

“And Joseph said unto his brethren, Come near to me, I pray you.”

Very probably Joseph sat in a chair of state while they were under examination, and out of respect for him they kept at a proper distance; or being frightened at what he had said, he might have observed them backing away, and so he encourages them in a kind and tender manner to return and come nearer to him, so that they might have a private conversation without being overheard by one of the Egyptians.  Or he might have believed that they might, by coming closer, call to mind some of his features still remaining, by which they might be assured he was indeed Joseph:

 

“And they came near.”

These men were frightened, fearing that Joseph may seek revenge for their sin against him, yet they were curious too. They came closer to him, as he asked them to do; they could see him better and they searched his features for anything remaining of the Joseph they knew and hated.

 

“And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt.”

Not only was his name Joseph, but he was that Joseph that was their brother; he acknowledges their relationship, which must have been very touching to them, since they had treated him, so unkindly.

 

Joseph added, “whom ye sold into Egypt,”not so much to remind them of their sin and scold them for what they had done to him, but to assure them that he was really their brother Joseph; as well as to lead into what he had further to say to them for their comfort.

 

5 Now therefore be not grieved, nor angry with yourselves, that ye sold me hither: for God did send me before you to preserve life.

 

“Now therefore be not grieved nor angry with yourselves,” that ye sold me hither:…”

Namely, excessively “grieved” and excessively “angry,” over the harm you did to me; or over the danger you have brought upon yourselves. Surely, he does not mean to deter them from expressing a godly sorrow and disappointment with themselves for the offence they committed against God, their father, and himself. Producing sorrow and displeasure was the principal objective he had in mind, and that led to his strange and rough conduct toward them. Sinners must grieve and be angry with themselves for their sins, even though God, by His power, brings good out of them. And true penitents should be greatly affected when they see God bring good out of evil.

 

 Two verses, Genesis 45:8{1] and Genesis 50:20{2] reveal to us the very noble and upright thoughts which Joseph entertained concerning the Providence of God, whose prerogative it is to bring good out of evil; but, besides this, we may observe a remarkable generosity and tender spirit in this apology to his brethren; in which he undertakes to remove every uneasiness from their minds. Gracious and benevolent hearts are always unwilling to bring sorrow and disappointment to anyone. The same kind disposition, which makes them zealous to spread happiness, makes them reluctant to inflict even temporary pain and trouble. Joseph was unwilling for his brethren to experience any interruption to the satisfaction which the present occasion afforded them; and therefore he quit speaking about their former unnatural and wicked behavior toward him, and directed their attention to reflections, which were equally comfortable and important.

 

“…for God did send me before you to preserve life.”

Not only your lives, but the lives of all the people in this and the neighboring countries. And now, his brethren did not need to fear that he might take revenge upon them for their offence done against him, which God’s providence had turned to his advantage and that of his family, as well as thousands and myriads of others. With deep piety he attributes everything that had happened to him to the providence of God; for, he says, “God did send me before you to preserve life.” A strong emphasis may be laid on every word here. It is not you, but God; it is not you that sold me, but God who sent me; Egypt and Canaan would both have perished, had not a merciful provision been provided. It was God’s plan for you to come down here, and God sent me ahead of you; death must have been the consequence of this famine, had not God sent me here to preserve life. It was the suffering Providence of God, "You indeed thought evil against me," as he says in another place; but God, who can cause the worst intentions to produce the best consequences for the world in general, and to his church in particular, meant it for good, in order to bring about, by that means, the preservation of many people's lives.

 

6 For these two years hath the famine been in the land: and yet there are five years, in the which there shall neither be earing nor harvest.

 

“For these two years hath the famine been, in the land,...”

That is, in the land of Egypt and in the surrounding countries.

 

“…and yet there are five years;…”

This famine is going to last another five years, which he knew from his dreams and the interpretation of them.

 

“…in the which there shall neither be earing{3] nor harvest.”

 Which means there will be no preparation for growing crops,⸺neither tilling, plowing or sowing, and so, there can be no reaping, or harvesting; at the very least, there would be very little land tilled, probably, only the land along the banks of the Nile; what is more, they had no corn to spare for seed. Moreover, the Egyptians knew from Joseph's prediction that the Nile would not overflow. For that reason it would serve no purpose to attempt to plough their land, which had become very difficult (the ground was very hard and dry) due to seven years of drought; or to sow their seed, since there was no likelihood of its springing up again.

 

7 And God sent me before you to preserve you a posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance.

 

“And God sent me before you...”

These words are a repetition of what he said in Genesis 45:7; he repeats it in order to impress upon the minds of his brethren a sense of the good providence of God in bringing him to Egypt ahead of them, to make provision for their future welfare, and to alleviate their grief, and prevent excessive sorrow for their selling him into Egyptian slavery, when by the overruling hand of God it proved so helpful to them.

 

“…to preserve you a posterity in the earth,…”

That is, God sent them to Egypt, so that they and their families do not perish, which, in all probability would have been the case had he remained at home; and secondly, so that the promise of the multiplication of Abraham's seed might continue to take place, for the Messiah must spring from Abraham’s posterity to fulfill prophesy.

 

“…and to save your lives by a great deliverance”

That is, by an extraordinary interference on your behalf. But the word rendered “deliverance,” more exactly signifies that which escapes. In the second clause the words seem to predict that only a few would escape, but in the third there is the assurance of their surviving in such numbers that they would be able to grow into a great nation.

 

8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.

 

“So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God:..”

Jacob is not saying that his brethren had no responsibility for him ending up in Egypt; after all, they sold him to the Ishmaelites, who brought him down to Egypt and sold him to Potiphar, and thus were instrumental in his coming to Egypt. But comparatively, it was not they as much as God that sent him. God, whose providence directed, and overruled all those events, to bring Joseph to this place, and to such a high station, to comply with the purposes and plans of God by providing for and preserving Jacob's family in a time of distress,

 

“…and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh,…”

He became Pharaoh’s teacher and his counselor and he advise him well in all things, as a father does his children. He was his partner and supporter, and they shared power and authority; but to be deemed a father to him (see Genesis 41:43), and to provide for him and the welfare of his kingdom, as parents do for their children, indicates that he was a great man, and a prince in Pharaoh's court:

 

It has already been pointed out that “father” was the name of an office in Egypt, and that “father to Pharaoh” might mean the same to them as prime minister or the king's minister means to us. The Phoenicians, Persians, Arabians, and Romans, gave the title of “father” to certain officers of state. The Roman emperors gave the name of father to the prefects of the Praetorium.

 

And how astonishing is it that since the wisdom of Joseph was so great and experienced, that "the words of his mouth were generally received, not as coming from man, but from God." Princes usually conferred this title of father upon their favorite counselors. The Hebrews and Greeks gave this title to old men in their greetings (2 Kings 2:12) and the Roman senators were called fathers too.

 

“…and lord of all his house,…”

His prime minister and chief counselor.

 

“…and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.”

To whom all the deputies of the various provinces were subject under Pharaoh, and especially in regard to the corn.

 

9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down unto me, tarry not:

 

“Haste ye, and go up to my father,...”

Jacob was waiting in Canaan, which was situated higher than Egypt. Joseph insists his brothers hurry, because he wanted to know as soon as possible that his father was alive, and what his circumstances were.

 

“…and say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph,…”

This time he left out his titles, such as the father and counselor of Pharaoh and governor of Egypt; for now, he was only Joseph his son, which would be enough to revive the heart of Jacob.

 

“…God hath made me lord over all Egypt:…”

He attributes his exalted position, not to Pharaoh, but to God, for civil honor and promotion to worldly splendor and dignity are from God, and not from man.

 

“…come down unto me, tarry not:…”

His current responsibilities would not permit him to go to his father and fetch him to Egypt; consequently he desires that he would come to him as soon as possible, which would benefit him and his family. Love for his father made this a very emotional time; the emotion of a consuming filial love is in these words. How long the days will seem until son and father meets again!

 

Christ seems to send us a message from heaven similar to this; he says to us, ‘God hath made Me Lord of all; come up unto me, tarry not.’ Should the king invite us to His Heavenly court, upon no other condition than to have and enjoy the pleasures and treasures to be had there, let us tarry not.” Friend, old Jacob never went any more willingly into Egypt, than we will go to our Lord, when we hear Him say, “Come unto Me, My child.”

 

10 And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast:

 

“And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen,...”

In the second year of famine (45:11), Joseph being the Vizier{4] of Egypt at the time, invited the sons of Israel (his brothers) to live in Egyptian territory. They settled in the country of Goshen (Genesis 46:34). Goshen (also called Rameses, 47:11) is described as the best land in Egypt, suitable for both crops and livestock. It has been suggested that this location may have been somewhat apart from Egypt, because Genesis 46.34 states, "Ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians." After the death of Joseph and those of his generation, the following generations of Israelites had become populous in number. The Egyptians feared potential integration or takeover, so they enslaved the Israelites and took away their human rights.

 

The Land of Goshen is named in the Bible as the place in Egypt given to the Hebrews by the pharaoh of Joseph (Genesis 45:9-10), and the land from which they later left Egypt at the time of the Exodus (Approximately four hundred and thirty years later). It was located in the eastern Delta of the Nile. As for how Joseph came to possess the rights to Goshen, several theories have been advanced:

  • He had received a grant for this country, from Pharaoh, to dispose of at his pleasure, or
  • He had so much power and authority that he could, by himself, put his father into it, or
  • It may be, it was within the domain of his father-in-law, the priest of On, or
  • Perhaps it was Joseph's own country, which he had with the daughter of the priest of On. If what the Jewish writers say is true, that Pharaoh, king of Egypt in Abraham's time, gave to Sarah the land of Goshen for an inheritance, and therefore the Israelites dwelt in it, because it was Sarah their "mother's"; it would account for Joseph's proposing to put them into the possession of it without the permission of Pharaoh, or
  • Goshen seems to have been in the grant of Pharaoh, who agreed and confirmed what Joseph proposed, Genesis 47:6

 

“…and thou shalt be near unto me,…”

The Bible tells us that thirty-eight souls, consisting of Jacob and his sons and all their families, went down to Egypt, but if you add to that all the servants and all the animals they owned, I would imagine they made quite an impression on the residents of Goshen. If Memphis was the royal seat at this time, as some think, Jacob’s clan would be nearby where Joseph spent most of his time. You might remember Memphis, since Moses was brought up there. If Joseph dwelt at On or Heliopolis, where his father-in-law was priest or prince, which was “near” if not in Goshen itself; then Joseph could rightfully say, “thou shalt be near unto me.”

 

“…thou, and thy children, and thy children's children…”

All of Jacob's sons had children, even Benjamin the youngest, a detail provided by the following chapter.

 

“…and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast:”

Goshen was a place noted for its first-rate pasture land, and there the king's shepherds had their pastures. It answered his brethren’s needs and was a suitable place for them to make their home

 

11 And there will I nourish thee; for yet there are five years of famine; lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty.

.

“And there will I nourish thee;…”

Joseph is speaking to everyone or to a few of them. He says, “there will I nourish thee,” which means he will provide for them and their families; that is, as Egypt’s second in command, he will see to it that they are comfortable and well provided for.

 

“…for yet there are five years of famine;…”

Only two of the seven have past, so “there are five years of famine” remaining.

 

“…lest thou, and thy household, and all that thou hast, come to poverty.”

Old Jacob is deeply concerned that all of his descendents may be consumed by the famine, and it would happen in all probability, if he did not procure food for his family during the famine.

 

The famine had lasted only two years, and thus far Jacob had managed to preserve his flocks and herds, so probably he had lost few or none of the large number of men-servants and women-servants who belonged to him. He would go down to Egypt as head of a large tribe, who would be called Israelites after him, just as the Ishmaelites, to whom Joseph was sold (Genesis 37:25), bore Ishmael’s name, not because they were his descendents, but because he had made them subject to his authority. In Genesis 45:18 Joseph speaks of “their households,” showing that each of the patriarchs had his own body of dependants, besides the still larger clan which belonged to Jacob.

 

12 And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you.

 

“And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin,...”

They were eyewitnesses of his being alive, for they had seen him with their own eyes, and even Benjamin, who could not be suspected by his father of being a fraud and not being truthful. Some of them could probably remember his features, and they had visual proof of his being their brother and Jacob’s son, who they could with great confidence relate unto Jacob.

 

“…that it is my mouth that speaketh unto you.”

That is, you see “that my mouth is speaking to you” in our native language. Before this he had spoken to them in the Egyptian tongue, through an interpreter, but now, after he had sent all Egyptian men out of the room, did he open up all his heart to his brethren; he cried out to them in Hebrew, “I am Joseph!” It was the sound of their native tongue in this land of strangers, from the lips of the grand vizier of Egypt that rolled back the years in the memory of the brethren more than anything he said.

 

13 And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye shall haste and bring down my father hither.

 

“And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt,...”

That is, his wealth and riches, his grandeur and dignity, his power and authority.

 

It was many centuries later that the Lord Christ said to Mary Magdalene tell his "disciples and Peter," because he was very dejected for denying his Master, and though he is down-in-the-dumps he must be one of the first to know, "I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God" (John 20:17).

 

“and of all that ye have seen;…”

What a magnificent house he dwelt in; what a continuous procession of servants he had; in what majesty he rode in the second chariot to the king; and what authority he exercised over the people, and what reverence they gave him, and what power he had, particularly in the distribution of corn.

 

“…and ye shall haste, and bring down my father hither.”

Joseph repeated himself (45:9) for he had an eager desire to see his father.

 

14 And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck.

 

“And he fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck, and wept;...”

Joseph went to Benjamin first, because he was the only brother with the same mother and father; the others had different mothers than he did. “He fell upon his brother Benjamin's neck,” may signify that he kissed him first on one side of his neck, and then on the other, to show his great affection for him. He wept tears of joy, because it had been more than twenty years since he last saw him.

 

Among the Middle Eastern people, kissing the beard, the neck, and the shoulders, is in use to the present day; and probably falling on the neck signifies no more than kissing the neck or shoulders, with the arms around the person. God’s people are not unemotional, aloof, or stoical; but have natural affections in them, just like others; no, above others.

 

“…and Benjamin wept upon his neck.”

He reciprocated the affection shown him by Joseph.

 

This incident is the most unquestionable instance in the Bible of tears of love.
No other feeling but love made Joseph weep. Sorrow could not have existed, for at that moment, on his side at least, it was all joy. Though there are no tears in heaven, yet loving tears on earth come nearer than anything else in the world to the alleluias of the saints, for they are the outbursts of an irrepressible emotion.

 

15 Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept upon them: and after that his brethren talked with him.

 

“Moreover, he kissed all his brethren,...”

He kissed them all in turn, as a testimony of his real affection for them, and to show that they had made a hearty reconciliation.

 

“…and wept upon them:…”

That is, upon their necks, as he had on Benjamin's.

 

“…and after that his brethren talked with him.”

That is, after the embracing of Benjamin (45:14) and the weeping and kissing of them all. “They were so stunned and bewildered that they could not utter a word till his tears washed out their terrors.” Bolstered by this demonstration of his affection for them, and encouraged to believe that he really forgave them their sin against him, and was truly reconciled unto them, and had a real affection for them, and had no reason to fear he would avenge himself on them; they entered into a frank and open conversation, and talked about their father and their families, and of what had happened since the time he was separated from them.

 

 

 

Scripture and Notes

[1}Genesis 45:8 ‖ “So now it was not you that sent me hither, but God: and he hath made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.”

[2}Genesis 50:20 ‖  But as for you, ye thought evil against me; but God meant it unto good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive.”

[3}“Ear” is an old English word, meaning “to plough” (compare 1 Samuel 8:12; Isaiah 30:24). This seems to confirm the view given (Genesis 41:57) that the famine was caused by an extraordinary drought, which prevented the annual overflowing of the Nile; and of course made the land unfit to receive the seed of Egypt.

[4}”Vizier”was the title given to the highest official in Ancient Egypt to serve the pharaoh.

 

 

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